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Foglight Agent Manager 5.9.1 - Foglight Agent Manager Guide

Configuring the embedded Agent Manager Installing external Agent Managers
Understanding how the Agent Manager communicates with the Management Server Deploying the Agent Manager cartridge Downloading the Agent Manager installer Installing the Agent Manager Starting or stopping the Agent Manager process Frequently asked questions
Configuring the Agent Manager Advanced system configuration and troubleshooting
Configuring Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) Configuring Windows Remote Management (WinRM) UNIX- and Linux-specific configuration
Monitoring the Agent Manager performance Deploying the Agent Manager to large-scale environments

About WinRM authentication and the Agent Manager

The Agent Manager supports Basic and Negotiate WinRM authentication schemes with Windows credentials. The Negotiate authentication scheme is enabled by default in WinRM and is the recommended way to authenticate in most environments.

In order to establish connections over Windows® Remote Management (WinRM), you must provide a Windows credential. For more information, see Configuring credentials.

The Negotiate authentication scheme requires fully-qualified domain accounts. For example, instead of using the NetBIOS domain, the Windows credential should be configured with the fully qualified domain.

The Basic authentication scheme requires local Administrator accounts; you cannot use domain accounts. For more information, see Promoting remote users to administrators on local machines through the Domain Controller. Basic authentication is insecure because it transmits user names and passwords in an easily decoded string, and therefore it should not be used on an untrusted network. If Basic authentication is required, and security is a concern, configure the target system to accept only HTTPS traffic. For more information, see Manually configuring WinRM HTTPS access. If Basic authentication is not acceptable in your environment because of some specific security concerns, it can always be disabled.

Basic and Negotiate authentication schemes are not mutually exclusive when it comes to their configuration. The remote system can be enabled to use both authentication schemes, given a specific order of preference. For example, a remote machine can be configured to first attempt the Negotiate authentication, and it fails, to subsequently try the Basic authentication. Therefore, if you enable Basic authentication, there is no need to disable Negotiate authentication requests, and the other way around. However, you can disable either scheme, as required.

In general, if Basic authentication is not suitable, it should be disabled. If both Negotiate and Basic authentication are enabled, and Negotiate fails, Basic authentication is still attempted, and the credentials are transmitted in an easily decoded string. Because of different credential requirements for Negotiate (a domain user credential) and Basic (a local administrator credential), a credential only applies to one authentication type. Therefore a general recommendation is that if Basic authentication is required, Negotiate authentication does not have to be disabled. But if Negotiate authentication is needed, best practice is to disable Basic authentication requests.

You can also use Windows Group Policy Objects to automatically configure HTTP or HTTPS listeners in WinRM. For more information, see Using Group Policy Objects to configure WinRM.

Configuring the target (monitored) system

Recent versions of Windows® OS include WinRM, but it is disabled by default. There are two ways to configure HTTP or HTTPS: manually or using Group Policy Objects.

The default WinRM settings allow only Negotiate authentication.

Optional. If Negotiate authentication is enabled, and you want to disable it, type the following:

winrm set winrm/config/service/auth @{<Basic|Negotiate>="<true|false>"}

If additional security is required, for example if data is transferred across untrusted networks, you can configure WinRM to use HTTPS. A valid server authentication certificate must be installed on the target machine in order to enable HTTPS.

The certificate must be granted by a recognized certificate-granting authority (CA) in order for the Agent Manager to authenticate it. Otherwise you must install the root CA certificate in the Agent Manager’s trusted keystore, as described in Installing HTTPS certificates.

host is a fully qualified host name, as it appears in the certificate.
thumbprint is the certificate thumbprint, with spaces removed.

You can use Windows Group Policy Objects to automatically configure HTTP or HTTPS listeners in WinRM. Enable or disable the appropriate default group policies that are pre-installed with Windows, or use the defaults as a template to develop new policies.

Type run and press Enter.
The Console Root window appears.
In the Console Root window, choose File > Add/Remove Snap-In.
In the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box that appears, in the Available snap-ins area, select Group Policy Object, and click Add.
In the Select Group Policy Object dialog box that appears, click Finish to close it.
Click OK to close the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box.
In the Console Root window, in the navigation tree on the left, choose Local Computer Policy > Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Windows Remote Management (WinRM) > WinRM Service.

In environments where an in-house certificate granting authority (CA) is in use, the CA’s certificate must be added to the Agent Manager’s trust keystore. The Agent Manager then assumes that the authority, and any signed certificates it issues, are trusted.

fglam --add-certificate alias=/path/to/

Configuring the Agent Manager (monitoring) system

The Agent Manager automatically attempts to perform the necessary configuration on the monitoring host machine. If for any reason the changes cannot be made, you have to manually update the following settings.

The WinRM Negotiate authentication scheme uses Kerberos. By default, the Agent Manager searches the following files for information about the location of the Key Distribution Center (KDC):

If the Agent Manager fails to find a configuration file, it attempts to automatically detect the required settings and writes them to $FGLAM/state/default/config/krb5.conf.

You can manually override the location of krb5.conf with the following command-line parameter:</path/to/file>

Generating a configuration file required for WinRM Negotiate authentication

WinRM connections using the default Negotiate authentication require a copy of the krb5.config file. On Windows®, the Agent Manager attempts to auto-generate this file and places it under <fglam_home>f/state/default/config/krb5.config. Under some circumstances, the Agent Manager is unable to auto-generate the file on Windows, in which case the file needs to be created. On UNIX® systems, the file is never auto-generated and must always be provided.

If the file needs to be created, the format of the krb5.config file for the WinRM Negotiate authentication is as follows:

default_realm = <dns_suffix_upper_case>
<dns_suffix_upper_case> = {
kdc = <DNS_Server_for_dns_suffix_upper_case>
.<dns_suffix_lower_case> = <dns_suffix_upper_case>


The values dns_suffix_upper_case, dns_suffix_lower_case, and DNS_Server_for_dns_suffix_upper_case must be replaced with their actual values.

The [domain_realm] section in the file maps the domain of the host being connected to, to a realm.

The [realm] section provides the relevant kdc (key distribution center) server with a specific realm to use for kerberos authentication. This is generally the DNS server for the relevant domain.

The default_realm value in the libdefaults section is the realm mapping to use when the domain of the host cannot be matched to a realm.

For example, for connecting to hosts on the domain with the DNS Server, the contents of the krb5.config file should be as follows:

When connecting to a, the host1’s domain is mapped to the SAMPLE.DOMAIN.COM realm, which maps to the DNSSERVER.SAMPLE.DOMAIN.COM kdc to use for kerberos authentication.

After the krb5.config file is created the absolute path to the generated krb5.config file should be provided in the <config:krb5-config-file> tag value of the <fglam_home>/state/default/config/fglam-config.xml file, so that it can be accessed by the Agent Manager. Any changes to the fglam-config.xml file require the Agent Manager to be restarted in order for those changes to take effect. Therefore, if the Agent Manager is running while you are making these changes, you must restart it.

Additional registry keys may be required when you deploy an Agent Manager on a Windows host. The Agent Manager installer attempts to make the changes automatically. If the Agent Manager is unable to establish a WinRM connection, check that the following changes were made correctly.

By default, Windows does not allow JavaTM to access certain required session keys when JavaTM attempts to authenticate with Kerberos. The following registry keys should be added to ensure that the required sessions keys are available. The Agent Manager attempts to detect and update these registry keys automatically the first time a WinRM connection is attempted.
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\Kerberos\Parameters
Value Name: allowtgtsessionkey
Value Type: REG_DWORD
Value: 0x01
Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\Kerberos
Value Name: allowtgtsessionkey
Value Type: REG_DWORD
Value: 0x01

The KerberosConfigurationService API provides the ability for agents to modify or create a Kerberos configuration file during runtime.

The Agent Manager uses the Kerberos configuration file to establish WinRM Negotiate connections to hosts. In most cases, the Agent Manager can create the Kerberos configuration for the current domain to which the machine running the Agent Manager belongs. However, the Kerberos configuration typically needs to be modified when cross-domain WinRM connections are required. This can be done by modifying the Kerberos configuration file manually, to add the new domain properties, and restarting the Agent Manager. If no instance of the previous Kerberos configuration file is found, the fglam.config.xml file needs to be updated to instruct the Agent Manger which Kerberos configuration file to use for WinRM connections.

All of these actions can also be performed during runtime, without requiring any manual changes, or an Agent Manager restart. The KerberosConfigurationService allows agents to make these changes during runtime and have the changes take effect immediately. If a new configuration file is created, fglam.config.xml file is updated automatically.

For complete information about this service, see the Foglight Agent Manager Devkit and Javadoc documentation.

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