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KACE Privilege Manager for Windows 4.4 - Administrator Guide

About this guide What is Privilege Manager? Installing Privilege Manager Configuring client data collection Configuring instant elevation Configuring self-service elevation Configuring temporary session elevation Configuring privileged application discovery Deploying rules Removing local admin rights Reporting Client-side UI Customization Using Microsoft tools Maintaining a least privileged use environment Database Planning Product Improvement Program

Client-side UI Customization

Privilege Manager supports the text customization of all user-facing dialogs on client computers. In addition to the ability to change the default English dialog text, admins can also create client-side UI customization files for any non-English client language locale.

Language translation fFiles

To customize the language used in the client-side UI, one or more translation files must be located in the same folder where the client files are installed, by default: C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\Quest\Privilege Manager\Client.

A language-specific translation file must be named as follows: <two_letter_language_code>-pmlang.ini

Example:

  • Spanish translation language file name: es-pmlang.ini
  • English translation language file name: en-pmlang.ini (used to customize client computers with English locale)
  • French translation language file name: fr-pmlang.ini

NOTE: The en-pmlang.ini file is present in the client folder by default. If no language translation file exists, default English UI text is used. Please see Privilege Manager for Windows KB 266054 for information on language translation files currently available for download, as well as configuration and troubleshooting tips.

Privilege Manager automatically searches for the language translation file corresponding to the language locale setting on a client computer. If no translation file is found, default English client-side text strings are used.

A specific language translation file can be used regardless of the Window's local setting,s with the use of a registry setting.

  • Hive: HKCU\Software\Scriptlogic Corporation\Privilege Authority
  • Key: Preferred Language
  • Type: REG_SZ
  • Value: name of language file; for example: es-pmlang.ini

The corresponding translation file must exist as described above.

In addition to checking locally on the client computer for language translation files, the Privilege Manager Client automatically copies down (and overwrites existing, if older) language files found on the NETLOGON share.

NOTE: NETLOGON is checked for updated language files every time a user logs on to a computer. Additionally, Administrators can configure the Privilege Manager Client to check an alternate location for updated language translation files. This can be done by updating the TranslationFilesFolder value in HKLM\Software\Scriptlogic Corporation\Privilege Authority.

Using Microsoft tools

You can use Microsoft tools with Privilege Manager for Windows to:

Maintaining a least privileged use environment

Maintain a least privileged use environment by processing Self-Service Elevation requests, using the Console Email Configuration screen, and using group policy settings.

Processing Self-Service Elevation Requests


Monitor and process Self-Service requests from users using Self-Service Notifications and the Self-Service Elevation Requests screen under the Discovery & Remediation tab. You can approve or deny requests for access to run privileged applications. If approved, an Elevation rule is automatically generated for each request. For more information, see Using Self-Service Notifications and Using the Self-Service Elevation Request Processing Wizard.

Using the Console Email Configuration screen

If you want Privilege Manager to send an email message to the user after approving or denying their Self-Service Elevation request, you can configure the settings using the Console Email Configuration screen found under Setup Tasks. For more information, see Using the Console Email Configuration screen.

Using Group Policy Settings

Use the Group Policy Settings screens to create custom Elevation rules or modify existing ones for your environment. The Advanced Policy Settings tab can also be used to modify the settings for advanced features at the GPO level. These features include Client deployment settings, Client data collection settings, Instant Elevation settings, Self-Service Elevation request settings, and privileged application discovery settings.

Database Planning

The goal of this topic is to proactively manage disk capacity as it relates to Privilege Manager. The capacity planning information provided here contains steps to help understand, install, and configure the Privilege Manager database environment.

Eighty percent of database issues deal with disk capacity problems and in many cases, they are caused by failure to adhere to best practices. Failure to adhere to best practices should never happen as these issues are very predictable and could be prevented with a comprehensive database plan.

This section gives you a breakdown of the Privilege Manager database structure to better understand the database environment and walks through capacity planning best practices to minimize the risk of disk over-utilization.

Privilege Manager Database Diagram

Privilege Manager Tables

Table Name Description
Activity Contains rule and Instant Elevation activity; includes Elevation type and item.
Computer Contains client computer information such as its name, domain, class, OU, operating system and the version of Privilege Manager installed.
DatabaseVersion Contains the database version of the Privilege Manager database.
DataError Contains database exceptions and includes exception messages, host address, host name and the XML data document that caused the exception.
DeployedRules Every time a new rule is deployed, a record is created for every user associated with this rule. This keeps track of all deployed rules, giving them a status of active or inactive and tracks date added or removed.
Discovery Contains information on any process that starts or fails to start on a client computer. Data stored here includes the product name and requested execution level. It is used by the Privileged Application Discovery component.
Domain Contains records of the network domains.
ElevationRequest Contains Elevation requests made on the client, including information about the name of products the request is being made for and the reason for the request.
Reports_Scheduled Contains records of the scheduled reports to be generated.
SharedFilters All shared filters created.
Rules Rules created and saved in the Privilege Manager Console.
Users Users who have logged into a Privilege Manager Client machine.

Data Storage Estimates

Table 1: Table size estimate for 1 Privilege Manager user.
Table Name # Rows Byte Size per Row Total Size (bytes)
Activity 1,000 4,222.68 422,268.00
Computer 1 84.38 84.38
DatabaseVersion 1 72.09 72.09
DataError 20 8,834.25 176,685.00
DeployedRules 20 49.15 983
Discovery 30 3,8049.23 1,141,476.9
Domain 1 84.38 84.38
ElevationRequest 20 54,540.61 1,090,812.2
Reports_Scheduled 10 4,575.25 45,752.50
Reports_SharedFiles 10 9,436.70 94,367.0
Rule 20 304.99 6,099.8
User 1 4,443.48 4,443.48
Total Size     4,683,128.73 Bytes

As the number of users grow, some tablesincrease in size more rapidly than others. For this reason, the database size does not grow proportionately.

Database size calculation uses the following rules:

  1. The Activity table generates one thousand records per user.
  2. The number of Computer records are equal to the number of user records.
  3. 20 reports represent one user.
  4. The DatabaseVersion table should be one record irrespective of the number of user in the environment.
  5. The DataError table is estimated to be twenty records to one user.
  6. The DeployedRules table should generate twenty records per one user.
  7. The Discovery table should generate roughly thirty records per user.
  8. The number of Domain table records are set to one per user.
  9. Twenty ElevationRequest records are generated per user.
  10. There are ten Reports_Scheduled records per user.
  11. There are ten Reports_SharedFilters per user.
  12. Twenty Rule records are generated per user.
  13. One user record exists in the User table per user.

 

Table 2: Database size for multiple users.
Privilege Manager Users Privilege Manager Database
1 4.7 MB
10 10.5 MB
100 73.0 MB
1,000 692.6 MB
2,000 1,378.6 MB
5,000 3,439.9 MB
10,000 6,876.4 MB
15,000 10,313.0 MB
20,000 13,749.5 MB
50,000 34,368.8 MB
100,000 68,734.2 MB

Database hardware and software requirements

It is recommended that databases above 6876.4 MB or 10,000 u,sers (Table 2 displays the database size as it relates to the number of users in the database environment) install the full SQL Server version. Any database size below 6,000 MB should be adequate to run SQL Server Express with room to grow before an upgrade to the full version of SQL Server is required.

NOTE: SQL Server Express databases have a size capacity limit of 10,000 MB.

When it comes to computing capacity and maximum memory there is also a bottleneck where different SQL Server installs may not be able to take advantage of processing power and large memory storage.

Table 3: Maximum database size, compute capacity, and maximum memory of different SQL Server installs.
  Enterprise Standard Web Express
Maximum database size 524 PB 524 PB 524 PB 10 GB
Compute Capacity OS Max 4 sockets or 24 cores 4 sockets or 16 cores 1 socket or 4 cores
Maximum Memory OS Max 128 GB 64 GB

1 GB

 

Table 4: Recommended SQL Server Installs for different size Privilege Manager environments
Privilege Manager Users Privilege Manager Database Recommended SQL Server Install
1 4.7 MB SQL Server Express
10 10.5 MB SQL Server Express
100 73.0 MB SQL Server Express
1,000 692.6 MB SQL Server Express
2,000 1,378.6 MB SQL Server Express
5,000 3,439.9 MB SQL Server Express
10,000 6,876.4 MB SQL Server Express
15,000 10,313.0 MB SQL Server
20,000 13,749.5 MB SQL Server
50,000 34,368.8 MB SQL Server
100,000 68,734.2 MB SQL Server

Auto-Growth

Privilege Manager uses the default auto-growth configuration settings that comes installed on SQL Server. This setting sets the initial database size of SQL Server to 3 MB, then grows it by 1MB every time the data limit is exceeded. The log file starts at 2 MB and is set to grow by 10% increments until the disk is full.

Even though the default auto-growth configuration settings work for Privilege Manager, it may not be the most appropriate configuration for all environments (especially for customers exceeding 10,000 users).

Every time the database grows it takes a performance hit. In SQL Server storage terms, 1024 K is 128 pages; pages are stored in 8 K blocks. For Privilege Manager, which is going to potentially load millions of records, growing the data file of a database every 128 pages incurs a large performance hit, especially since SQL Server’s I/O requests are a major bottleneck.

Additionally, since auto-growth allocates chunks of data at a time it is easier for the database to become fragmented. With that in mind it is recommended to update the auto-growth settings.

The table below displays the recommended settings based on the size of the network environment. These values are not set in stone but are based on database growth rates of your specific environment. The rule of thumb is to set this value to one eight of the estimated database size. Ideally you should use auto-grow as a fail/safe parameter, and use alerts or monitoring programs to monitor file sizes and grow files proactively. This helps you avoid fragmentation and permits you to shift these maintenance activities to non-peak hours.

 

Table 5: Auto-growth recommendation for different size Privilege Manager environment.
Privilege Manager Users Privilege Manager Database Auto-growth
1 4.7 MB 1 MB
10 10.5 MB 1.3 MB
100 73.0 MB 9.1 MB
1,000 692.6 MB 86.5 MB
2,000 1,378.6 MB 172.3 MB
5,000 3,439.9 MB 429.9 MB
10,000 6,876.4 MB 859.5 MB
15,000 10,313.0 MB 1289.1 MB
20,000 13,749.5 MB 1718.7 MB
50,000 34,368.8 MB 4296.1 MB
100,000 68,734.2 MB 8591.8 MB

How to change auto-growth on SQL Server 2014

NOTE: Steps may be slightly different for other supported versions of SQL Server.

To change the auto-growth settings:

  1. Start SQL Server Management Studio.
  2. Highlight, then right click the PAReporting database and navigate to Properties.
  3. In the left Panel, select Files from the Database Properties dialog. The Properties window will be used to change Auto-growth.
  4. Identify the PAReporting name under Logical Name and change the Auto-growth based on table 5 above. In this example, we have set the auto-growth to 430MB and a max size of unlimited and left the log file to grow my 10% to a limit of 20971252MB. 430 is roughly one eighth of the 3,439.9MB database size for the 5000-user environment.

Initial database size

When Privilege Manager is installed it uses the default file and log size specified by SQL Server. The specified file size is 3MB for the database and 2MB for the database logs. As these files fill up and exceed the initial file size there are performance implications from growing this file and fragmentation of the data on the disk.

To prevent these performance issues, it is recommended that if the database is expected to grow to a specific size in a month double that value and use it for the initial size. For example, if the database is expected to grow to 2000Mb in a month, set the initial database size to 4000Mb. This will reduce the number of auto-growths and lessen fragmentation because a larger allocation means more database related information can be accessed from the same disk location. Table 6 below breaks down the recommended initial size for the database based on a range of 1 to 100,000 users for the different database size estimates.

 

Table 6: Initial Size recommendation for different size Privilege Manager environment.
Privilege Manager Users Privilege Manager Database Initial Size
1 4.7 MB 9.4 MB
10 10.5 MB 21.0 MB
100 73.0 MB 146.0 MB
1,000 692.6 MB 1385.2 MB
2,000 1,378.6 MB 2,757.2 MB
5,000 3,439.9 MB 6,879.8 MB
10,000 6,876.4 MB 13,752.8 MB
15,000 10,313.0 MB 21,626.0 MB
20,000 13,749.5 MB 27,498.0 MB
50,000 34,368.8 MB 68,736.0 MB
100,000 68,734.2 MB 137,468.4 MB

How to change the Initial Size on SQL Server 2014

NOTE: Steps may be slightly different for other supported versions of SQL Server.

To change the Initial Size settings:

  1. Start SQL Server Management Studio.
  2. Highlight, then right click the PAReporting database and navigate to Properties.
  3. In the left panel, select Files from the Database Properties dialog box. Use the Properties window to change the Initial Size.
  4. Identify the PAReporting name under Logical Name and change the Initial Size based on Table 5 above.

    For example, you can set the Initial Size (MB) to 13,752.8MB. This value is two times the size of the database.

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