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KACE Systems Management Appliance 9.1 Common Documents - Administrator Guide

About the KACE Systems Management Appliance (SMA) Getting started
Configuring the appliance
Requirements and specifications Power-on the appliance and log in to the Administrator Console Access the Command Line Console Tracking configuration changes Configuring System-level and Admin-level General Settings Configure appliance date and time settings Enable Two-Factor Authentication for all users Verifying port settings, NTP service, and website access Configuring network and security settings Configuring Agent settings Configuring session timeout and auto-refresh settings Configuring locale settings Configuring the default theme Configure data sharing preferences About DIACAP compliance requirements Configuring Mobile Device Access Enable fast switching for organizations and linked appliances Linking Quest KACE appliances Configuring history settings
Setting up and using labels to manage groups of items Configuring user accounts, LDAP authentication, and SSO Using Replication Shares Managing credentials Configuring assets
About the Asset Management component Using the Asset Management Dashboard About managing assets Adding and customizing Asset Types and maintaining asset information Managing Software assets Managing physical and logical assets Maintaining and using manual asset information Managing locations Managing contracts Managing licenses Managing purchase records
Setting up License Compliance Managing License Compliance Setting up Service Desk Configure the Cache Lifetime for Service Desk widgets Creating and managing organizations Importing and exporting appliance resources
Managing inventory
Using the Inventory Dashboard Using Device Discovery Managing device inventory
About managing devices Features available for each device management method About inventory information Tracking changes to inventory settings Managing inventory information Finding and managing devices Provisioning the KACE SMA Agent Manually deploying the KACE SMA Agent Using Agentless management Adding devices manually in the Administrator Console or by using the API Forcing inventory updates Managing MIA devices Obtaining Dell warranty information
Managing applications on the Software page Managing Software Catalog inventory
About the Software Catalog Viewing Software Catalog information Adding applications to the Software Catalog Managing License assets for Software Catalog applications Associate Managed Installations with Cataloged Software Using software metering Using Application Control Update or reinstall the Software Catalog
Managing process, startup program, and service inventory Writing custom inventory rules
Deploying packages to managed devices
Distributing software and using Wake-on-LAN Broadcasting alerts to managed devices Running scripts on managed devices Managing Mac profiles Using Task Chains
Patching devices and maintaining security
About patch management Subscribing to and downloading patches Creating and managing patch schedules Managing patch inventory Managing Dell devices and updates Maintaining device and appliance security
Using reports and scheduling notifications Monitoring servers
Getting started with server monitoring Working with monitoring profiles Managing monitoring for devices Working with alerts
Using the Service Desk
Configuring Service Desk Using the Service Desk Dashboard Managing Service Desk tickets, processes, and reports
Overview of Service Desk ticket lifecycle Creating tickets from the Administrator Console and User Console Creating and managing tickets by email Viewing tickets and managing comments, work, and attachments Merging tickets Using the ticket escalation process Using Service Desk processes Using Ticket Rules Run Service Desk reports Archiving, restoring, and deleting tickets Managing ticket deletion
Managing Service Desk ticket queues About User Downloads and Knowledge Base articles Customizing Service Desk ticket settings Configuring SMTP email servers
Maintenance and troubleshooting
Maintaining the appliance Troubleshooting the KACE SMA
Appendixes Glossary About us Legal notices

How the KACE SMA conducts SCAP scans

About SCAP

SCAP (Secure Content Automation Protocol), is a set of open standards that enumerate software flaws, monitor security-related configurations and product names, and examine systems to determine the presence of vulnerabilities and rank (score) the impact of the discovered security issues on Windows devices.

SCAP is maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and its use is mandated by government agencies such as the US OMB (United States Office of Management and Budget).

SCAP uses the US government’s National Vulnerability Database (NVD), which is a standards-based vulnerability management data repository. NVD includes databases of security checklists, security-related software flaws, misconfigurations, product names, and impact metrics. For more information on SCAP and NVD, go to the NIST websites at http://scap.nist.gov/index.html and http://nvd.nist.gov/.

SCAP supported versions and platforms

The KACE SMA supports SCAP 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2, and SCAP is certified to run on Windows 7 and higher platforms (32-bit and 64-bit systems).

The KACE SMA conducts SCAP scans using the KACE SMA Agent software that is installed on managed devices. SCAP is not available for devices that do not have the KACE SMA Agent software installed, such as Agentless devices.

How the KACE SMA conducts SCAP scans

The KACE SMA conducts SCAP scans by running scripts on selected Agent-managed devices using security configuration checklists from the National Checklist Repository.

For SCAP versions 1.0 and 1.1, the script checks the SCAP data stream written in XML formats using the following SCAP standards: CCE, CPE, CVE, CVSS, OVAL, and XCCDF. See Definitions of SCAP standards.

SCAP 1.2 adds the concept of the "Data Stream," where all of the individual results files are combined into a single XML file. In addition, SCAP 1.2 adds a new output format called ARF (Asset Report Format 1.1). For more information, go to http://scap.nist.gov/specifications/arf/.

The KACE SMA uses the Agent software to perform SCAP scan compliance checks. The results files are uploaded to the appliance or organization database and collated into a single file for reporting to a government agency (if required). Results are also displayed for each device on the appliance’s SCAP Scan Results page.

If the Organization component is enabled on your appliance, you view SCAP scan results for each organization separately.

SCAP uses the OVAL Interpreter version 5.10.1 and provides:

These features improve software security, threat assessment, and vulnerability correction.

Definitions of SCAP standards

SCAP scans monitor device security using specified protocols and standards.

Standard

Definition

CCE

Common Configuration Enumeration provides unique identifiers to system configuration issues for facilitating fast and accurate correlation of configuration data across multiple information sources and tools.

The compliance checking results produced by the KACE SMA SCAP scan include the relevant CCE ID references for XCCDF and OVAL definitions for every rule checked as designated by the checklist definition.

CCE information is available both in the XCCDF result file and the appliance’s SCAP Scan Results page.

CPE

Common Platform Enumeration is a structured naming scheme for information technology systems, platforms, and packages. Based on the generic syntax for Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), CPE includes a formal name format, a language for describing complex platforms, a method for checking names against a system, and a description format for binding text and tests to a name. In essence, CPE ensures that the security checklist is applied to the correct platform.

This information is available both in the XCCDF result file and the appliance’s SCAP Scan Results page.

CVE

Common Vulnerability and Exposures is a list or dictionary that provides standard identifiers (common names) for publicly known security vulnerabilities and software flaws.

The compliance checking results produced by the KACE SMA SCAP scan include the relevant CVE ID references and OVAL definition for every rule checked in the checklist definition.

For every patch or vulnerability, CVE ID references are provided in the appliance’s SCAP Scan Result page.

The CVE information is stored in a patch result XML file generated by the scan. The file is available for inspection and verification in the Agent’s working directory and on the server’s SCAP Scan Results page.

CVSS

Common Vulnerability Scoring System provides an open framework for communicating the characteristics and impacts of IT vulnerabilities. Its quantitative model helps ensure repeatable accurate measurement while enabling users to see the underlying vulnerability characteristics that were used to generate the scores. CVSS is well suited for industries, organizations, and governments that need accurate and consistent vulnerability impact scores. Among others, CVSS assists prioritizing vulnerability remediation activities and calculating the severity of vulnerabilities. The National Vulnerability Database (NVD) provides CVSS scores for almost all known vulnerabilities.

OVAL

Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language is an international, information security, community standard for promoting open and publicly available security content. It standardizes the transfer of this information across the entire spectrum of security tools and services.

The results of each OVAL test are written to several files on the target device and then compiled into a single result file on the appliance and displayed on the SCAP Scan Results page.

SCAP

Secure Content Automation Protocol is a set of open standards that enumerate software flaws, monitor security-related configurations and product names, and examine devices to determine the presence of vulnerabilities and rank (score) the impact of the discovered security issues. See About SCAP.

XCCDF

The eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format is a specification language for writing security checklists, benchmarks, and related documents. An XCCDF file contains a structured collection of security configuration rules for a set of target devices. The specification is designed to support information interchange, document generation, organizational and situational tailoring, automated compliance testing, and compliance scoring. See How a SCAP scan works.

Definitions of SCAP standards

About SCAP

SCAP (Secure Content Automation Protocol), is a set of open standards that enumerate software flaws, monitor security-related configurations and product names, and examine systems to determine the presence of vulnerabilities and rank (score) the impact of the discovered security issues on Windows devices.

SCAP is maintained by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and its use is mandated by government agencies such as the US OMB (United States Office of Management and Budget).

SCAP uses the US government’s National Vulnerability Database (NVD), which is a standards-based vulnerability management data repository. NVD includes databases of security checklists, security-related software flaws, misconfigurations, product names, and impact metrics. For more information on SCAP and NVD, go to the NIST websites at http://scap.nist.gov/index.html and http://nvd.nist.gov/.

SCAP supported versions and platforms

The KACE SMA supports SCAP 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2, and SCAP is certified to run on Windows 7 and higher platforms (32-bit and 64-bit systems).

The KACE SMA conducts SCAP scans using the KACE SMA Agent software that is installed on managed devices. SCAP is not available for devices that do not have the KACE SMA Agent software installed, such as Agentless devices.

How the KACE SMA conducts SCAP scans

The KACE SMA conducts SCAP scans by running scripts on selected Agent-managed devices using security configuration checklists from the National Checklist Repository.

For SCAP versions 1.0 and 1.1, the script checks the SCAP data stream written in XML formats using the following SCAP standards: CCE, CPE, CVE, CVSS, OVAL, and XCCDF. See Definitions of SCAP standards.

SCAP 1.2 adds the concept of the "Data Stream," where all of the individual results files are combined into a single XML file. In addition, SCAP 1.2 adds a new output format called ARF (Asset Report Format 1.1). For more information, go to http://scap.nist.gov/specifications/arf/.

The KACE SMA uses the Agent software to perform SCAP scan compliance checks. The results files are uploaded to the appliance or organization database and collated into a single file for reporting to a government agency (if required). Results are also displayed for each device on the appliance’s SCAP Scan Results page.

If the Organization component is enabled on your appliance, you view SCAP scan results for each organization separately.

SCAP uses the OVAL Interpreter version 5.10.1 and provides:

These features improve software security, threat assessment, and vulnerability correction.

Definitions of SCAP standards

SCAP scans monitor device security using specified protocols and standards.

Standard

Definition

CCE

Common Configuration Enumeration provides unique identifiers to system configuration issues for facilitating fast and accurate correlation of configuration data across multiple information sources and tools.

The compliance checking results produced by the KACE SMA SCAP scan include the relevant CCE ID references for XCCDF and OVAL definitions for every rule checked as designated by the checklist definition.

CCE information is available both in the XCCDF result file and the appliance’s SCAP Scan Results page.

CPE

Common Platform Enumeration is a structured naming scheme for information technology systems, platforms, and packages. Based on the generic syntax for Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), CPE includes a formal name format, a language for describing complex platforms, a method for checking names against a system, and a description format for binding text and tests to a name. In essence, CPE ensures that the security checklist is applied to the correct platform.

This information is available both in the XCCDF result file and the appliance’s SCAP Scan Results page.

CVE

Common Vulnerability and Exposures is a list or dictionary that provides standard identifiers (common names) for publicly known security vulnerabilities and software flaws.

The compliance checking results produced by the KACE SMA SCAP scan include the relevant CVE ID references and OVAL definition for every rule checked in the checklist definition.

For every patch or vulnerability, CVE ID references are provided in the appliance’s SCAP Scan Result page.

The CVE information is stored in a patch result XML file generated by the scan. The file is available for inspection and verification in the Agent’s working directory and on the server’s SCAP Scan Results page.

CVSS

Common Vulnerability Scoring System provides an open framework for communicating the characteristics and impacts of IT vulnerabilities. Its quantitative model helps ensure repeatable accurate measurement while enabling users to see the underlying vulnerability characteristics that were used to generate the scores. CVSS is well suited for industries, organizations, and governments that need accurate and consistent vulnerability impact scores. Among others, CVSS assists prioritizing vulnerability remediation activities and calculating the severity of vulnerabilities. The National Vulnerability Database (NVD) provides CVSS scores for almost all known vulnerabilities.

OVAL

Open Vulnerability and Assessment Language is an international, information security, community standard for promoting open and publicly available security content. It standardizes the transfer of this information across the entire spectrum of security tools and services.

The results of each OVAL test are written to several files on the target device and then compiled into a single result file on the appliance and displayed on the SCAP Scan Results page.

SCAP

Secure Content Automation Protocol is a set of open standards that enumerate software flaws, monitor security-related configurations and product names, and examine devices to determine the presence of vulnerabilities and rank (score) the impact of the discovered security issues. See About SCAP.

XCCDF

The eXtensible Configuration Checklist Description Format is a specification language for writing security checklists, benchmarks, and related documents. An XCCDF file contains a structured collection of security configuration rules for a set of target devices. The specification is designed to support information interchange, document generation, organizational and situational tailoring, automated compliance testing, and compliance scoring. See How a SCAP scan works.

About benchmarks

About benchmarks

A SCAP benchmark is a security configuration checklist that contains a series of rules for evaluating the vulnerabilities of a device in a particular operational environment.

The NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) maintains the National Checklist Repository that contains various security configuration checklists for specific IT products and categories of IT products.

The USGCB (United States Government Configuration Baseline) benchmark standard evolved from the FDCC (Federal Desktop Core Configuration), and currently addresses Windows 7 (along with earlier versions of Windows such as Windows XP or Windows Vista), and Internet Explorer versions 7 and 8.

A checklist consists of a ZIP file that contains several XML files called a SCAP Stream. The primary file in the Stream is the XCCDF file. The XCCDF file is a structured collection of security configuration rules for a set of target devices. Essentially, it is a list of OVAL tests that should be run. The other XML files contain the OVAL tests specified in the XCCDF file. For detailed information on the XCCDF Specification, go to http://scap.nist.gov/specifications/xccdf/.

A benchmark can contain one or more profiles. A profile specifies the rules that run on specific kinds of devices. For example, a benchmark might contain one set of rules for desktops and another set for servers.

How a SCAP scan works

How a SCAP scan works

Before SCAP scans are conducted, the KACE SMA imports and verifies a benchmark. After it is imported and verified, the benchmark is loaded into the appliance and the XCCDF file undergoes a process called resolution.

During resolution, the oval-command.zip file is generated. This ZIP file contains the input files necessary to run a particular profile. You can view the files on the Script Detail page. See Configure SCAP schedules.

The SCAP scan is controlled by a KScript. When the scan runs, the following files are downloaded to the target device as script dependencies:

benchmark.zip: contains the benchmark files, that is, the SCAP Stream that was uploaded to the appliance. (The XCCDF file is not actually used by the device.)
oval-command.zip: contains the input files generated by the XCCDF.
ovalref.zip: contains the OVAL scanning engine (ovaldi.exe).

The KScript initiates the OVAL scans on the target device and generates several results files. The OVAL scanning engine runs two or three times:

Each run generates a results file. These files are named according to the run. For example, the file from the first run is named scap-profile-10-result-1.xml and the second is named scap-profile-10-result-2.xml. These files are located in the following directory: C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Quest\KACE\kbots_cache\packages\kbots\<working directory>.

To find the KACE SMA Agent’s working directory, go to Inventory > Devices > Device Detail > Logs.

These results files are then uploaded to the KACE SMA and collated into a single results file (xccdf-results.xml). You can use this file for reporting the results to a government agency such as the US OMB (United States Office of Management and Budget). The KACE SMA and managed device retain only the latest results files.

In the final step of a run, a subset of the results files is extracted and stored in the Organization database for reporting and displayed on the SCAP Scan Results page for each device.

The database tables that contain this information are SCAP_RESULT, SCAP_RESULT_RULE, and SCAP_RESULT_SCORE. See View SCAP scan results.

Access SCAP Scan information

You can access SCAP Scan information in the Security section.

1.
Go to SCAP Scan page:
a.
Log in to the KACE SMA Administrator Console, http://KACE_SMA_hostname/admin. Or, if the Show organization menu in admin header option is enabled in the appliance General Settings, select an organization in the drop-down list in the top-right corner of the page next to the login information.
b.
On the left navigation bar, click Security, then click SCAP Scan.
Catalog: Shows the status of SCAP benchmarks. Additionally from this page, you can import checklists, delete checklists, and export a checklist to CSV format.
Schedules: Displays the name of the benchmarks and when they are scheduled to run. Additionally from this page, you can add and delete benchmarks, enable or disable benchmarks, and export a benchmark to CSV format.
Reporting: Shows the general results of SCAP scans.

The page also displays a dashboard that shows the results by benchmark. For a device to pass a benchmark, it must score 100%.

View and manage benchmarks

You can view and manage SCAP benchmarks, which include profiles and checklists that have been imported to the appliance.

Additionally, you can import benchmarks, delete benchmarks, and export benchmarks to CSV format by selecting Choose Action on the SCAP Catalog page.

1.
Go to SCAP Catalog list:
a.
Log in to the KACE SMA Administrator Console, http://KACE_SMA_hostname/admin. Or, if the Show organization menu in admin header option is enabled in the appliance General Settings, select an organization in the drop-down list in the top-right corner of the page next to the login information.
b.
On the left navigation bar, click Security, then click SCAP Scan.
c.
On the SCAP Scan panel, click Catalog.
2.
Optional: Specify which benchmarks are displayed using either the View By drop-down list or Search field.
3.
Optional: To sort the benchmarks, click a column heading.

The SCAP Catalog contains general information about the selected benchmark and the time and date that the SCAP data was uploaded to the appliance. See Download benchmarks from the archive.

Import and modify benchmarks

You can import and modify benchmarks from the National Checklist Repository as needed.

1.
Go to SCAP Catalog list:
a.
Log in to the KACE SMA Administrator Console, http://KACE_SMA_hostname/admin. Or, if the Show organization menu in admin header option is enabled in the appliance General Settings, select an organization in the drop-down list in the top-right corner of the page next to the login information.
b.
On the left navigation bar, click Security, then click SCAP Scan.
c.
On the SCAP Scan panel, click Catalog.
2.
Select Choose Action > Import New Checklists.
The SCAP Configuration Scan Settings page appears and displays Step 1 of the import wizard.
3.
Click Browse or Choose File to import a benchmark ZIP file.
4.
Click Next.
5.
Select a benchmark in the Select a profile to scan drop-down list, then click Next.
6.
Select the OVAL Engine that you want to use in the Scan using existing engine drop-down list.
NOTE: The default engine is MITRE’s OVAL Interpreter (ovaldi.exe). The KACE SMA automatically downloads updates to this engine when Quest certifies and releases new versions of the engine and OVAL definitions.
7.
Optional: Click Browse or Choose File to find and upload a custom engine and its configuration files.
A dialog box appears indicating that the file is being uploaded and a message appears on the SCAP Configuration Scan Settings page that the engine was successfully imported.
TIP: Use a custom engine if you need local control of the OVAL engine or if you do not want automatic updates to change the engine. The custom engine must be a ZIP file of a folder containing the custom ovaldi.exe and any necessary configuration files required to run the engine. This ZIP file replaces the ovalref.zip dependency file in the SCAP scan script. See View the resolved XCCDF files.
8.
Click Next.

A dialog box appears indicating that the benchmark file is being loaded, followed by the Script Detail page. See Editing SCAP scan schedules.

Configure SCAP schedules

You can import benchmarks or definitions, and change settings for SCAP scans, by configuring SCAP schedules.

1.
Go to SCAP Scan Schedules list:
a.
Log in to the KACE SMA Administrator Console, http://KACE_SMA_hostname/admin. Or, if the Show organization menu in admin header option is enabled in the appliance General Settings, select an organization in the drop-down list in the top-right corner of the page next to the login information.
b.
On the left navigation bar, click Security, then click SCAP Scan.
c.
On the SCAP Scan panel, click Schedules.
2.
Select Choose Action and select an action to add or delete benchmarks, enable or disable benchmarks, and export a benchmark to CSV format.
4.
Scroll down the page to the Scheduling section and make the necessary changes.
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